Endoscopic Procedures

Feline Vet Referrals and Consultancy Service

Veterinary endoscopy services are becoming increasingly popular amongst small animal clinicians.

As a minimally invasive procedure, endoscopy is a reliable option for looking inside hollow organs in order to aid in diagnosing and treating disease. It is also useful for removing foreign bodies and obtaining tissue samples from our patients. It can significantly reduce the risk of long general anaesthetics as well as pain and discomfort from large surgical incisions.

I can perform a variety of endoscopic procedures including oesophagoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, rigid anterograde rhinoscopy, flexible retrograde rhinoscopy, flexible bronchoscopy, otoendoscopy, cystoscopy, vaginoscopy, and colonoscopy in small animals.

Upper (Gastroduodenoscopy) and Lower (Colonoscopy) Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

This is the endoscopic exploration of the oesophagus, stomach and intestines. This minimally invasive imaging technique is useful for investigating cases of regurgitation, dysphagia, vomiting, haematemesis, melena, anorexia, diarrhoea, weight loss, haematochezia and tenesmus. It most commonly is used for obtaining biopsies and the removal of foreign bodies.Lioness Endoscopy Feline Vet Elise Robertson


This is the endoscopic technique for examining the lungs and allows for thorough visual examination of the larynx, trachea, mainstem and segmental bronchi. It can help identify structural abnormalities, aid in collection of pathology samples of abnormal airway secretions or tumours and to identify and remove respiratory foreign bodies.


Cystoscopy allows the exploration of the urethra and urinary bladder. It is commonly used in small animal patients for those presenting with chronic cystitis, pollakiuria, hematuria, stranguria, incontinence and urolithiasis.


Examination of both the external and middle ear can be achieved using a rigid endoscope. It is one of the most common applications of endoscopy in veterinary practice, especially for chronic ear disease. Otoendoscopy allows for safe and thorough ear cleaning under constant visualization, removal of foreign objects, polyp removal and diagnostic sampling.

Rigid and Flexible Rhinoscopy

This is the exploration of the nose and nasopharynx. It is commonly indicated in cats with nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, chronic sneezing, epistaxis, facial distortion, nasal pain, acute severe sneezing and reverse sneezing.

Elise Robertson Feline Vet Endoscopy

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Elise Robertson Feline Vet Endoscopy

Endoscopic Procedures
EndoscopyBiopsy of duodenal mucosa in a cat who presented with crhonic vomiting. Diagnosis: lymphoplasmacytic enteritis.
CholecystocentesisMass protruding from choana in cat: Diagnosis adenocarcinoma

Renal biopsy

PEG feeding tube placed in cat

EndoscopyPhoto of duodenal papilla
EndoscopyColonoscopy in cat who presented with bloody diarrhoea
EndoscopyIntubation of the ileocolic sphincter in cat.
EndoscopyMultimodal analgesia is vital when performing rhinoscopy in dogs and cats. This is an example of an infraorbital nerve block in a dog prior to performing rigid rhinoscopy.
EndoscopyOtoendoscopy in dog with chronic otitis. This image shows the ballooning of pars flaccida at 12 oclock position and intact pars tensa below.
EndoscopyEndoscopic view of antral canal in cat. Diagnosis: Gastric Lymphoma

EndoscopyThis photo shows chronic inflammation in a dog's nasal cavity (ventral meatus) called polypoid hyperplasia


Anterograde view via ventral meatus into nasopharynx highlighting a band of tissue with small aperture called a 'nasopharyngeal stenosis' in a cat.

EndoscopyThis is an image of rugal fold in the stomach of a Rough Collie -gastric adenocarcinoma
EndoscopyImage of rectum in cat. Then endoscope needs to retroflexed to achieve visualisation of this area
EndoscopyView of ileum (distal part of small intestine) in cat after intubating ileocolic sphincter.
EndoscopyCystoscopy in a bitch showing the openings of the ureters in the bladder. This image shows both right and left ureter openings in 10 oclock and 5 oclock positions.
EndoscopyRigid rhinoscopy highlighting nasal adenocarcinoma with prominent vascularisation.

Article Links
VetStream Article: Tracheoscopy
VetStream Article: Transurethral Cystoscopy
VetStream Article: Bronchoscopy
VetStream Article: Laryngoscopy